Anna Ivanovna — Empress of Russia span >
Anna Ivanovna (Anna Ivanovna) was born (on January 28) February 7 in 1693 in Moscow. The daughter of the king , it is up to 17 years most of the time spent under the supervision of his uncle Peter, who watched her upbringing. It is the autumn of 1710, for political reasons, gave Anna married Frederick William, Duke of Courland, who died shortly after the wedding. The young widow at the urging of Peter remained in Courland, though not interrupt relations with Russia.
After the sudden death of in January 1730 the direct descendants of the Romanov dynasty in the male line left. Members of the Supreme Privy Council invited Anna to the throne, but as a monarch with limited powers. She signed her proposed "condition", according to which the real power in Russia passed on to the Council, and the role of the monarch was to representational functions.
This caused a protest among the clergy and the nobility, who handed Anna a petition for reinstatement of autocracy. On arrival in Moscow in February 1730 she broke the "condition" and was proclaimed Empress of autocratic. Her support was the nobility and the Guard. Despite this, in the first minutes of Anna's reign began the persecution of the Russian nobility. Its members — Dolgoruky, Golitsyn, Volyn, and others — were gradually losing their importance at court, subject to the link and even executions.
Once in power, Anna abolished the Supreme Privy Council, replacing it with the Cabinet of Ministers, which, in effect, ruled the country. Also established the Office of the undercover investigation of cases, which in a short time gained immense power. Anna is constantly afraid of conspiracies, so abuse of this department have been great.
Governmental activity Anna Ivanovna aimed generally at the continuation of the policy of Peter I. In foreign policy, were quite active measures by which Russia has further strengthened its global position. Conducted a successful war of the Polish Succession, against Turkey, the Crimean Khanate was destroyed. But there were mistakes — especially the so-called peace of Belgrade, which historians consider the most shameful in Russian history.
The internal transformation of the country remember the era of Anna Ivanovna improving postal service between cities, the establishment of the police in the provinces, the resumption of construction Petersburg. Positive developments have taken place in higher education and research, especially due to and foreign scientists. There had been a number of measures to improve the Army and Navy and talents of different privileges of the nobility.
The Empress few engaged in public affairs, it was absorbed by the minutiae of court life, placing control of the country by his advisers, mostly Germans. The greatest influence enjoyed , which intervened in all the affairs of management, exploiting the country for their own benefits.
Also reign of Anna Ivanovna glorious catastrophic lack of money. Was not enough money for anything other than entertainment and imperial feed a royal court, who in 1731 moved back to St. Petersburg. Yard Anna distinguished of all-time before the luxury and fun, which, however, often put up with tasteless and poorly covered dirt.
(17) October 28 1740 Anna Ivanovna died in St. Petersburg, where he was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Shortly before her death she proclaimed heir to the Russian throne of his infant nephew , and regent during his Duke of Courland Biron. But soon after the death of Anna throne passed to , the daughter of Peter I.