Gerard Peter Kuiper


Gerard Peter Kuiper was born December 7 in 1905 Harenkarspele (Netherlands). At 22, he graduated from the University of Leiden and worked there for six years under the leadership of E. Hertzsprung. In 1933, he moved to the United States. He worked at the Lick Observatory in Chicago and Harvard universities. He was director of the Yerkes Observatory.

In 1960 he organized the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona.

Kuiper was a recognized authority in the field of physics of stars. His first papers devoted to the study of binary stars. He found a lot of new double stars and white dwarfs.

Gerard Peter Kuiper — the author of the concept that more than half of the nearest stars to the Sun — double or multiple systems. In 1937 he published the first of a dependency diagram of the spectrum and luminosity for galactic star clusters.

spectroscopic method first discovered carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars, discovered the atmosphere of Titan, the icy particles in the rings of Saturn. Determined the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere of Venus, opened the fifth satellite of Uranus Miranda, the second satellite of Neptune, Nereid, was the most comprehensive photographic survey of asteroids.

One of the leaders of the lunar exploration program, he discovered basaltic composition of the surface of the lunar maria. Supervised program of photographing the Moon with the spacecraft.

Kuiper compiled an atlas of infrared solar spectrum, it is theoretically predicted coexistence belt of comets surrounding the solar system, the existence of which was proved 20 years after the death of the astronomer, and the belt was his name . In honor of the asteroid and Kuiper named craters on Mars, Moon and Mercury.

Gerard Peter Kuiper was awarded a medal. Janssen, the French Astronomical Society and Medal. Rittenhauza of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.

Kuiper died in Mexico City December 23 in 1973 on the 69-year life.