Alexander I (Portrait of Gerard) < / span>
Alexander I Pavlovich Romanov was born (12) December 23 in 1777 in St. Petersburg. The eldest son of Emperor Paul, he was brought up under the tutelage of NI Saltykov. As a child, the boy was greatly influenced by his grandmother — the Empress .
In 1793, Alexander married the daughter of the Margrave of Baden, Mary Augusta Louise, who took the name . He came to the throne in a palace coup, was killed Paul I, in 1801.
According to historians, Alexander I was different duplicity, indecision, suspicion and painful self-esteem, however, having good intelligence and education, he was an outstanding diplomat.
In the first half of his reign, Alexander I had a number of moderate-liberal reforms: decreed the "free cultivators," gave land ownership merchants, burghers and the State-owned settlers, abolished the Secret expedition, abolished torture, authorized the importation of foreign books and activities of private presses, etc.
Most of the reforms was designed Secret Committee, which in 1810 was transformed into the Council of State. Their purpose was to preserve the autocracy and the prevention of revolutionary unrest.
One of the main achievements of Alexander as a reformer was the creation in 1802 Cabinet ministers and eight ministries, which contributed to the centralization of government, are not allowed to establish peer and personal responsibility high-ranking officials of their duties.
A lot has been done for the development of education in Russia. In 1803, accepted the new position of the device schools. By decree of the king was established a number of universities — Kharkov, Kazan, and others were opened in three of the Lyceum, one of which — Tsarskoye Selo — was under the patronage of the emperor.
In foreign policy Alexander I at first maneuvered between England and France at the same time concluding peace treaties with both powers (1801). Later, he participated in two anti-Napoleonic coalition. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia, but was destroyed during World War II. The combined forces of the new coalition won. Alexander led Russian troops and their allies in the spring of 1814 came to Paris.
In the reign of Alexander I of Russia were annexed eastern Georgia, Finland, Bessarabia, Azerbaijan, the former Grand Duchy of Warsaw. The successful completion of the war with Turkey and Sweden have strengthened the international position of Russia.
Also, Alexander was one of the leaders of the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 period. In an effort to establish a new European community on the basis of religious and political principles, and participated in the creation of "Holy Alliance» and was a constant participant in all its congresses.
According to official figures, Alexander I Pavlovich Romanov died suddenly (November 19) December 1 in 1825 in Taganrog . There was a legend that Alexander issued a false report of his death, and actually lived in Siberia as a hermit by the name of Fyodor Kuzmich.