Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born 13 August in 1926 Birane (Oriente province in the southeast of Cuba), the son of a wealthy landowner. In 1945, after graduating from college, he joined the faculty at the University of Havana law. In those years, Fidel read the works of Mussolini, Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, General de Rivera.

After graduation in 1949, he spent some time engaged in the private practice of law in Havana. Even then, he became interested in politics and joined the Party of the Cuban people ("Orthodox"), from which in 1952 was nominated for the National Congress. However, the elections were not held because of the coup, carried out by the military, led by General Batista.

During the struggle against the Batista dictatorship of the party "Orthodox" broke up, but Castro managed to unite a small group of supporters, who continued revolutionary activities. In 1953, Fidel led the assault on the Moncada barracks — a military garrison Batista, but was unsuccessful. Castro was arrested. At a meeting of the court, he uttered the famous speech in which he called on the Cuban people for armed struggle against tyranny. The court sentenced Castro to 15 years in prison, but in May 1955, under public pressure, he was pardoned and emigrated to Mexico.

There he began preparing for a new uprising. Fidel organized the "Movement 26 July», and in December 1956 a group of revolutionaries led by Castro landed in Oriente province. They initiated the guerrilla movement has grown quickly, and soon the revolutionary detachments were converted into Insurgent Army.

January 1 1959 — the day of the overthrow of the Batista dictatorship and the victory of the revolution. Castro became chief of the armed forces and took over as Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba. He formed a new government from among its supporters, has canceled free elections and began to lead the country solely by means of decrees.

As a staunch opponent of the United States, Castro immediately began the expropriation of U.S. property in the country. In response to the U.S. in April 1961 had operation on the mercenary invasion of Cuba in the area of ??Playa Giron, in order to initiate an uprising against the Castro government. However, the operation failed, and Fidel personally directed the actions to defeat the invaders.

All this led to a confrontation with the United States, and they broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba. In search of allies, Fidel turned to the Soviet Union, which gave him full support. Castro said that the Cuban revolution is by its nature a socialist revolution. Following the example of other socialist countries, the Cuban government nationalized the entire industry, transport, communications, and much of the land ownership.

Confrontation with the United States also led to the {event-Caribbean Crisis 1529} 1962 {/ event}, when the world was put on the brink of nuclear catastrophe. Also in the 1960s, Castro had to put down several anti-government riots, tens of thousands of those who disagree with its policies of citizens were imprisoned and more than two million Cubans have emigrated.

In 1965, the "26th of July Movement" was transformed into United Party of the Socialist Revolution, which was later renamed the Communist Party of Cuba and Castro (following the example of the Soviet Union) was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party. In 1976, he became chairman of the State Council and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cuba, aligning the post of head of government and head of state. He also held the rank of Commander of the Cuban armed forces.

Under the leadership of Fidel's Cuba has made significant progress in the social sphere. The country has introduced free health care, significantly increased the level of literacy. Also in 1960, 90 years Cuba has played an active role in international politics, and supporting anti-American revolutionary movement in many third world countries.

But in the early 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, ceased and Soviet economic assistance. This has led to a downturn in the Cuban economy, the growth of food shortages and consumer goods. Castro government was forced to carry out a series of reforms aimed at developing the market, and to make significant concessions, allowing foreign investment into the country.

Castro has many rewards, as well as the title of Commander of the revolution. Hero of the Soviet Union, he was awarded numerous Soviet orders and medals, as well as awards from other countries. Castro is the winner of the International Lenin Prize "for peace between peoples," an honorary Doctor of Law of Moscow State University, the University of Prague ...

He is the author of the book "Ten years of war and revolution," as well as collections of articles and speeches. Castro entered the Guinness Book of Records as the most fiery orator — his famous speech lasted 27 hours. Castro was one of those leaders whose lives are constantly under threat. Over the years of being in power against him were more than 600 assassination attempts.

Officially Fidel Castro was married to Juan Diaz Balart, divorced. But according to his contemporaries, he always had a lot of women. He had 7 children.

In February 2008, the permanent head of Cuba for 50 years, Fidel Castro announced his resignation as president and chief of the armed forces of Cuba. The reason for this was a serious illness. The new president was elected Raul Castro — Fidel's brother.

In early 2012, Castro presented two volumes of his memoirs under the title "Fidel Castro Ruz: Guerrilla of time." According to the magazine the magazine «Forbes» Castro is one of the richest people in the world, his personal fortune is estimated at $ 550 million.