Alexander the Great span>
He was one of the greatest generals and statesmen of antiquity. Not for nothing from ancient times to the present day firmly established him the nickname "The Great».
Alexander III the Great (Macedonian) was born July 21 356 years before our AD in the family of the Macedonian king Philip II in Pella (capital of Macedonia). The father was engaged in military training alone boy. In 343 BC he hired a tutor to the prince of the famous philosopher Aristotle.
Even in childhood, Alexander was different from his peers. He was indifferent to bodily pleasures, but Alexander's ambition was boundless. At the age of 16 for the Tsar Alexander remained in Macedonia when Philip was besieging Byzantium, and the rules strictly, ruthlessly suppressed the uprising of the Thracian tribe of honey.
With the accession to the Macedonian throne, Alexander first of all dealt with the alleged conspirators against his father, and by the Macedonian tradition, with the possible contenders to the throne. Know and the Macedonian people, he drew on his side the abolition of taxes.
At the very beginning of his reign, in the year 335 BC, the young king made a campaign against the north-western neighboring tribes Illyrians, triballov, Goths . He forced the neighbors to recognize sovereignty of Macedonia. In the same year, the city of Central Greece tried to rebel against Macedonia, but Alexander managed to subdue the rebels.
The following spring, the Greek-Macedonian army under the command of Alexander crossed into Asia Minor and went to war with Persia. On the river Granik Macedonians defeated the Persian army. After that, the army of the young king quickly took Asia Minor.
In the year 333 BC Persian King Darius III attempted to break the Greek-Macedonian army at Issus. However, despite the huge numerical, the advantage of the Persians were defeated. Alexander managed to capture all the ports of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
In the next two years, the army led by Alexander took Egypt. October 1 331 BC in Mesopotamia about the decisive battle of Gaugamela Greek-Macedonian army against the Persian army under the command of Darius III. The Persians suffered another defeat, Darius III fled and was soon killed. Alexander the Great took Babylon, Susa, Persepolis, and Ecbatana.
One year later, he moved further to the east and occupied the center of the Iranian plateau, and then and Central Asia. To consolidate his power in the conquered territories, Alexander built a fortress with a strong garrison, which have been called — Alexandria.
In the spring of 327 BC talented commander made an aggressive campaign in western India (Punjab). However, Alexander's army, exhausted by a long march, demanded the return home.
winter of 323 BC Alexander the Great stopped in Babylon, which he made the capital of his vast empire. The commander was planning to move soon to a campaign against the Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.
Shortly before this campaign, he fell ill. After 10 days of fierce fever on June 13 323 BC Alexander the Great died in Babylon at the age of 32 years.