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Prince Alexander Nevsky — the famous Russian commander, covered with military glory, awarded a literary novel about his deeds, canonized by the church after the death of a person whose name continued to inspire generations, who lived many centuries later.
Alexander of Kostroma Neva was born 30 May in 1220 in Pereslavl. He — the second son of Grand Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovicha, great-grandson of Monomakh. Adolescence and youth Alexander mostly spent in Novgorod.
In 1225 Yaroslav "perpetrate sons prince vows" — a rite of passage to the soldiers, and soon landed his older brother Alexander Theodore reign in Novgorod. But in 1233, Theodore died unexpectedly, and Alexander was the eldest of Yaroslav. And soon took his first military campaign (under the banner of his father) at Dorpat, who was then in the hands of Livonians, and winning on the river Omovzhe.
In 1236 Yaroslav went to reign in Kiev, which is nominally continued to be considered the capital of all Russia. Since that time, Alexander became an independent prince of Novgorod and in the early years was involved in the strengthening of the city. In 1239, Yaroslav married to the daughter of Alexander the Prince of Polotsk Brjachislav. Already in 1240, was born in Novgorod their firstborn — Basil.
Universal glory of Alexander brought victory that he won on the banks of the Neva River at the mouth of the river Izhory July 15, year over the Swedish squad. Shortly before the Germans came near to Pskov, and the Swedes, dispute the possession of Novgorod Finland entered the Neva River, reached the mouth of Izhory and moved to Novgorod. According to legend, a detachment commanded by the future ruler of Sweden Birger Jarl. July 15, 1240, Alexander and his team and a small group of Novgorod suddenly attacked the outnumbered Swedes. The enemy, taken by surprise, suffered heavy losses. Under cover of night, the remnants of the Swedish troops boarded the ships and fled.
Victory in this battle not only prevented the loss of Russ coast of the Gulf of Finland, the Swedish stopping aggression in the Novgorod and Pskov land, but also demonstrated the talent and strength of Alexander, as a military leader. It is believed that for this victory became known as Prince Nevsky.
Meanwhile, Novgorod and the Livonian Germans were coming. Do not stay on the conquest of the Baltic states, they tried to move the expansion in the Novgorod lands. Knights Crusaders captured Isborsk then — Pskov. The entire western part of the Novgorod possessions ruined by German troops. The first blow struck by Alexander Koporie — stronghold invaders. The fortress was built here enemy, was taken. In 1242, Alexander with his army, the army of Novgorod and a detachment led by his brother Andrew, who came to the aid of Suzdal, marched to the aid of Pskov. After freeing the city, Alexander went to Livonia.
In April 1242 there was a battle on the border with the Livonian Order on Lake Peipus, known as the "Battle on the Ice». This victory over the Russian army knights on the ice of Lake Peipus added glory of Alexander, and his successful military action for a long time to ensure the safety of western borders of Russia.
In the same year the Germans had sent to Novgorod embassy asking about the world: Order refused from all claims on Russian land and asked for a prisoner exchange. The peace treaty was signed. After the Battle on the Ice Crusaders did not bother Russian land for 11 years. But in 1253 they broke the peace treaty and rushed to Pskov, Pskov, but were repulsed, and came to the rescue to help Novgorod. But again, not for long ...
Alexander, however, continued to reign in Novgorod, Russian protecting land from any attacks from the west. After his father's death in 1247, he and his brother Andrew went to the Horde to Batu to get permission for a great reign. From there, they were sent to the Great Khan in Mongolia. Where returned to Russia only after 2 years with the labels on the reign. In the end, Alexander was recognized as "the oldest" among Russian princes, he received Kiev and "All Russian land", and Vladimir prince was Andrew. But Alexander did not go to Kiev, greatly damaged and lost all significance after the defeat of the Tatars in 1240, and continued to reign in Novgorod.
Andrew could not get along with the Tartars, so long poknyazhil Vladimir: in 1252 he had moved against the Tatar troops. He was defeated and fled to Sweden. During these events, Alexander was in the Horde and got a label on the great reign of Vladimir. From that time until his death, he was the Grand Duke Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev remaining.
Settling in Vladimir, Alexander became as much a defensive Russian lands from the Tatars, as previously from the Swedes and Germans, but acted otherwise by: on the one hand restrain useless rebellion of his subjects against the Tatars, on the other — trying to obey the Khan to deliver potential benefits of Russian land, gave a lot of gold to the Horde for the redemption of captives. Andrew also soon came back and sat down to reign in Suzdal, by means of his brother received a pardon from the Khan.
Alexander also took steps to consolidate the right to Novgorod. Earlier Novgorod boyars could invite to his Russian princes from different lands, but Alexander has established a new order of Novgorod admitted the prince who held the Grand Buffet in Vladimir. Thus, becoming the Grand Duke Vladimir, Alexander retained his Novgorod principality. He left the eldest son of Basil, but not as an independent prince, but as his deputy.
In 1262 Berke, khan of the Golden Horde started the war against the Mongol ruler Hulagu Iran and demanded to send him to the aid of Russian troops . Alexander went to the Horde in order to "protect the people from that trouble," and remained there for almost a year. Apparently, his mission was a success: the information on the participation of Russian troops in the wars against the Golden Horde Hulagu not. On the way back to Russia in autumn 1263, Grand Duke started to hurt.
Having schema named Alexis, Alexander Nevsky November 14 in 1263 died in Gorodets on the Volga. Originally, he was buried in the monastery of the Nativity of the Virgin of Vladimir. In 1724, by order of Peter Alexander Nevsky's relics were solemnly transferred to the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in St. Petersburg, where he is now resting and in Trinity Church.
He canonized Russian Orthodox Church in the face of the pious of the Metropolitan Macarius at the Moscow Council of 1547.
In 1725, the Empress Catherine established the Order of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral — one of the highest awards of Russia, which existed until 1917. And in 1942, during World War II was established Soviet Order of Alexander Nevsky (the only Soviet award, named after Russian activist era of the Middle Ages). They were awarded the commanders who displayed personal courage and ensured the successful operations of its parts.
The name Alexander Nevsky named streets, alleys, squares of cities Russia. Orthodox churches dedicated to him. Alexander Nevski installed in St. Petersburg and Petrozavodsk.