Belopolski born on July 13 in 1854 in Moscow. He studied at Moscow University, where he also worked as a mechanic at the University Observatory and studied photographic observations of the Sun. Belopol'skii watched the movement of sunspots and tried to understand the characteristics of their dynamics, conducting various experiments.
He studied the rotation of the sun, was engaged in the definition of the origin of stars and planets. One of the first scientist to apply the photographic recording of spectra of cosmic bodies, using a special spectrograph.
In 1879, he got a job as an assistant at the Observatory of Moscow State University. In 1884, the scientist managed to photograph a lunar eclipse in 1887 — a solar eclipse. That's when he got pictures of solar corona.
Since 1888 Belopol'skii worked at the Pulkovo Observatory. With the help of special tools he determined parallax stars, investigated the rotation of Jupiter. In 1890, a talented astronomer engaged in the program to measure the radial velocities of stars. In 1895, he was able to prove that the rings of Saturn are composed of smaller bodies.
He also studied comets (their spectra, the physical structure and chemical composition). 12 works Belopolsky devoted to these studies, by which he made conclusions about the relationship between the type of tailings and chemical structure of comets.
In 1900 Belopol'skii an experiment in which was tested in a laboratory Doppler effect — the value of linking shift of the spectral lines with the speed of the object.
Belopol'skii professor lecturing on astrophysics at the University for Women (1908-1918). Subsequently, these lectures have been released in the form of the textbook "astrospectroscopy" (1921). In 1903 the scientist was elected a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Throughout his life, he participated in several expeditions.
In the years 1916-1919 Belopol'skii was the director of the Pulkovo Observatory, and in 1933 he became its honorary director.
Belopolski died at Pulkovo 16 May in 1934.