Catherine I span>
Catherine I (March Skavronskaya), Empress of Russia (with on January 28 in 1725), his second wife Peter, born (5) April 15 in 1684 in Livonia.
Origin Martha is unknown. According to some sources, she was the daughter of Samuel Skavronsky Latvian peasant, on the other — Swedish Quartermaster J. Rabe. Education she received, and her youth was spent in the home of Pastor Gluck in Marienburg (now Aluksne Latvia), where she was a laundress and cook at the same time. It is also likely that she was briefly married to a Swedish dragoon.
In 1702, after the capture of Marienburg Russian troops future Russian Empress was the prize of war, and was first in the train of BP Sheremeteva, and then at AD.
Around 1703 it was noticed by Peter I, captivated by Martha appearance. She became one of his mistresses. Gradually, the relationship between them became more and more intimate. March was soon baptized in the Orthodox manner by the name of Catherine. It featured a light, cheerful, smooth and gentle nature. She not only knew how to adapt to the vagaries of Peter and put up with his outbursts of causeless anger — she helped during epileptic seizures and shared with him the difficulties of camp life.
Peter was more attached to Catherine, born admit it to his children. Catherine did not directly participate in the policy process, but had a definite influence on the king. According to legend, she saved the king of the Prut campaign, when Russian troops were surrounded. Catherine gave the Turkish Grand Vizier all her jewelry, thereby inclining him to sign a truce.
On his return to St. Petersburg February 19 in 1712, Peter was married to Catherine, and their daughter Anna and Elizabeth (the future Empress ) received official status tsesareven.
In 1714, in memory of the king of the Prut campaign instituted the Order of St. Catherine, which awarded the wife in her birthday. In May 1724, Peter the first time in the history of Russia was crowned as the Empress Catherine.
After the death of Peter's efforts Menshikov and by relying on the Guard, Catherine was enthroned. As she herself did not have the skills and knowledge of a statesman, when it was ruled the country created the Supreme Privy Council, the head of which was the Menshikov. Among the most important events of this time — the opening of the Academy of Sciences, an alliance with Austria, etc.
becoming autocratic empress, Catherine found unrestrained craving for entertainment: almost all the time she spent at banquets, balls, a variety of festivals and almost no interest in the affairs of government. Before his death, at the urging of Menshikov Catherine signed a will in which the throne was to go to the Grand Duke Peter Alexeyevich (), and in the event of his death to her daughters or their descendants.
died Catherine (6) May 17 in 1727 in St. Petersburg.