Apostles Peter and Paul are particularly honored as disciples of Jesus Christ, who, after the death and resurrection of Christ began to preach and spread the message of the Gospel around the world.
Feast of Saints Peter and Paul (Feast of SS. Peter and Paul) was first introduced in Rome, the bishops whom the teaching of Western Church considered the successor of the Apostle Peter, and then spread to other Christian countries.
Peter (the original name of Simon) engaged in fishing and was called by Jesus Christ to the apostles, along with his brother Andrew. Peter gets a mission to become a "cause" of the church of Christ, he handed over the keys of the kingdom of heaven. According to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, naming it (and especially the words of the "keys of the kingdom of heaven") refers to the fact that Peter was presented with the real power and legal authority, and that this power — by virtue of the fact that the church will continue to exist until the end of time — should be transferred to his successors. Peter was the first of the apostles, to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection. After the death of Christ, Peter was engaged in preaching activities.
In the Catholic Church, according to the position of Peter as "the head of the Apostles" and the successor of Christ, there is the doctrine of the primacy of the Pope as head of the church united.
Paul (Saul before baptism), the first Christian writers whose works have come down to us, and the most authoritative figure in the history of Christian thought. His views have played a huge role in the formation of Christianity as a separate religion.
Paul was born in Tarsus in Asia Minor in the Pharisees family. Jealous of Jewish law, Saul persecuted Christians, believing that it is harmful heresy. Having experienced a miraculous vision on the road to Damascus, Saul was baptized and became a devout preacher of Christianity among the Gentiles. Paul is revered as a throned Apostle Church. Church attributes to him 14 letters included in the New Testament.
Both apostles were martyred for their faith in Christ in one day (67 BC) in Rome. Paul, as a Roman citizen, "beheaded by the sword" (ie beheaded), Peter crucified. Since he considered unworthy to be crucified on the cross of the Savior, his own request, crucified "headlong" (ie upside down). He was buried on the Vatican hill and over the place of his burial at the present time is the main altar of St. Peter's.
The Orthodox Church celebrates the Apostles Peter and Paul on July 12 .