24 June in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn Scottish king defeated the army of King Edward II, restoring the independence of their country.
Back in the 13th century, during the reign of King Alexander III, Scotland economically prospered and was in a relatively peaceful relations with its southern neighbor — England. The tragic death of the Scottish king and the lack of successors revived all the old problems and created new ones, which ultimately led to the events known as the "First War of Scottish Independence».
After the death of Alexander III in 1286, and his young daughter Margaret in 1289, among many contenders for the crown of Scotland were John Balliol and Robert Bruce Elder. Both of them were descendants of the Norman knights of William the Conqueror.
By Edward, King of England, was sent to the message with the request to be the arbiter of the situation. Edward readily agreed. Confirming its feudal and military supremacy, the regents of Scotland allowed Eduardo to make a decision about who will rule in Scotland.
English King Edward I awarded the crown of Balliol, although Bruce was odnoyu degree closer to terminate the dynasty than Balliol. Edward wanted to dominate in Scotland. If he could not become a king, he could choose the most suitable candidate obedient to his will. But, tired of the abusive situation, Balliol renounced his allegiance to Edward, and spoke out against it.
In 1296, King Edward I of England deposed and imprisoned the Scottish king John Balliol, declared himself ruler of Scotland directly. In Scotland, a movement of resistance.
Robert Bruce, grandson of the first contender for the crown, intelligent and brave, presented his claim to the throne and made the defense of Scottish independence. At a meeting of the representatives of the Scottish noble birth, which took place in Dumfries in February 1306, Robert the Bruce was unanimously proclaimed King.
exiled by British officials, 25 March 1306 he was crowned at Scone. Edward I sent to Scotland Valentsskogo Amery, who struck troops Bruce defeated at Metvene. Many Scottish nobles were killed in the battle or were executed in the hands of the British hit Bruce's wife and daughter, and he was forced to seek refuge in one of the Hebrides.
Some time later, Bruce ventured with a small number of adherents to resume fighting, the British inflicted a lot of damage, but had no time to escape with his friends in Karrikskie mountains. Edward came to Scotland with a strong army, but only reached Carlyle, where in 1307 he was caught by death.
son Edward — Edward II — weak, not noted for warlike spirit, could not successfully fight against the brave and the Bruce at Bannockburn suffered June 24, 1314 decisively defeated.