In the third Monday in January, America celebrates the national holiday — Martin Luther King (Martin Luther King Day), a holiday dedicated to the life and ideals of the black civil rights.
Black clergyman and civil rights activist was born on on January 15 in 1929 in Atlanta (GA). His great-grandparents were slaves, his grandfather — a peasant, but King's father was a priest, and he himself, after receiving his doctorate in theology at Boston University in Massachusetts, returned to his native South and became a pastor in Montgomery (Alabama).
The era of King, the leader began in December 1955 with a seemingly unremarkable event. Returning home from work, black seamstress Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give way to a white passenger on a bus. Under the leadership of King's black community boycotted the Montgomery trucks for 382 days. In November 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court declared the law on segregation unconstitutional in Alabama, and in December the black and white used a bus together.
It was the first victory of the King. The following 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. For 11 years, King traveled more than seven million kilometers in a speech to more than 2,500 times, constantly find themselves in places of protests, actions and fight against injustice. However, he managed to write five books and a large number of articles.
Heading the protest in Birmingham (Alabama), King was arrested and imprisoned for nine days in custody, where he wrote a series of his famous essay "The Letters from the Birmingham jail, "a kind of manifesto of the fighters against discrimination, argues the moral right of a person to speak out against unjust laws. He was engaged in the registration of black voters in Alabama, was one of the organizers of the peaceful march on Washington, which was attended by half a million people, and which ended with one of the most quoted speeches Luther King's "I Have a Dream» (I Have a Dream).
King's role in the non-violent struggle for the adoption of the law, to destroy the remnants of racial discrimination, was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964. So at age 35 he became the youngest winner in the history of the Nobel Peace Prize.
The world has recognized the intrinsic value of the contribution of Martin Luther King in the fight for peace. But only 15 years after his death, in 1983, the U.S. Congress recognized the importance of its constitutional heritage, declaring the third Monday in January a national holiday in honor of the birthday of Martin Luther King. First American nation celebrated its several states on January 20 in 1986, and in all states of the U.S. has become a national holiday since 2000.
On this day, a day off in schools, offices, post offices and banks. All TV channels broadcast clips of speeches King 1960. From the radio can be heard saying the leaders of the movement for equal civil rights. In the previous Sunday in churches read the sermon short-lived. On Monday held memorial services and exquisite ceremony reminiscent of King's life, devoted to the fight for peace.