18 April in our country celebrates the Day of military glory of Russia — Victory of Russian soldiers of Alexander Nevsky over the German knights on Lake Peipus (Ice, 1242). Holiday was established by the Federal Law ? 32-FZ of 13 March, 1995 "On the days of military glory of Russia and anniversaries."
In 1240, the knights of the Livonian Order and captured Pskov Koporie. Having arrived in Novgorod in 1241, Prince immediately began retaliatory action. Taking advantage of the difficulties of the Order, then the abstract to fight the Mongols, Alexander Nevsky was made on Koporye, took it by storm and killed most of the garrison. Part of knights and mercenaries from the local population has been taken prisoner, but released, the number of traitors and hanged Tschudi.
By the beginning of 1242, Alexander waited brother Andrew Jaroslavich with "grassroots" army of Suzdal. When the "bottom" the army was still on the way, Alexander the Novgorod forces came under Pskov and surrounded him. Order did not have time to quickly gather and send reinforcements to the besieged. Pskov was taken, the garrison killed, and medal governors were sent in chains to Novgorod.
From the known annals, Battle of the Ice began at sunrise at Voroneya Kameni on Uzmeni. The traditional scheme of the battle is as follows. German convoy attacked horse trekking center of Russian troops caused him great loss, however, was covered on the flanks of the prince's cavalry and took flight.
On the ice of Lake Peipus fell 400 German soldiers (of which twenty were real " brothers "knights), 90 Germans (6 of them" brothers ") came to the Russian prisoners. Sources indicate that the prisoners were near their horses during the joyous entry of Prince Alexander in Pskov.
This battle, along with victories over Sweden Prince Alexander (on July 15 1240 on the Neva), and over the Lithuanians (in 1245 under Toropets the lake and near Zhiztsa Usvyat) was of great importance to the Pskov and Novgorod, holding pressure of the three major enemies of the west — at a time when the rest of Russia suffered heavy losses of princely strife and consequences of the Tatar conquest.
In Novgorod long remembered the Ice Germans: with Neva victory over the Swedes, it is still remembered in the 16th century on the litanies of all the churches of Novgorod.