decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR April 6 in 1963 the right to pre-trial investigation was transferred to the Ministry of Public Order, later renamed the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. The introduction of the Decree in place and marked the beginning of the official activities of the investigative unit of the Interior.
Acquisition investigative unit in the Ministry of Internal Affairs was going on the basis of the inquiry, and then — the prosecution. This allowed a relatively short time to create a Ministry of Internal Affairs investigative apparatus capable of competently, in a professional manner to investigate the crime. Prosecutors have helped lay a solid foundation in the development of professional core of the preliminary investigation and the Interior Ministry have left a good memory.
Institution investigative unit in the Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation had a regular character. It was due to the practical needs of the fight against crime. Practice has shown that the decision was justified. Almost half a century after the preliminary investigation bodies formed Ministry of Internal Affairs and stronger, determined the most appropriate structure, style and working methods.
Although it is worth noting that the history of the formation of the preliminary investigation began much earlier criminal proceedings under the Charter, adopted in 1864, was based on the idea of ??procedural autonomy of the investigator, which is reflected in all subsequent criminal procedure laws of the Russian State.
In its development, the bodies of preliminary investigation has undergone some serious changes.
The first reform took place as early as 1922 when, in accordance with the Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR, the entire investigative unit was centered in the system of justice, and in the criminal investigation department was abolished. At the same time expanding the competence of inquiry. When the investigators was assigned a preliminary investigation on 60 trains, then the investigative bodies — at 89.
Decree of the Central Executive Committee and the CPC of the RSFSR of on September 3 1928 investigative unit reassigned and transferred to the jurisdiction of the Prosecutor's Office. Already 20 October in 1929, it was decided that gives prosecutors the right to charge the police investigation of any crime. In practice, this has meant that over the next 30 years, the police and is not an organ of the law of the preliminary investigation, however, investigated in full of all categories of criminal cases. To support these activities in 1940 in the internal affairs on the basis of departmental orders were established its investigative unit, headed by the investigation department of the Main Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs officers.
adopted in 1958 Fundamentals of criminal proceedings is entitled to a preliminary criminal investigation only state security prosecutors and investigators. In this regard, the investigative police unit was again eliminated.
However, due to the heavy load prosecution investigators were not able to provide the entire array of the investigation of criminal cases. Bodies of inquiry essentially continued to serve as a preliminary investigation and passed the case to the excited end of the investigation to the prosecutor only when a significant amount of work has been carried out on them.
In his official biography has investigative unit MIA also has several phases development.
1963-1965 years — a period of not only the formation of the preliminary investigation, but also attributing to its jurisdiction the most complex and time-consuming cases of economic crimes, including the theft of a large scale. Starting with 2% in the future Ministry of Internal Affairs investigators are investigating more than 90% of cases in this category.
1965-1978 years — expansion of the training base for the preparation of the investigators, the provision of the Chief of Investigations procedural powers of control over the investigation of crimes, the creation of a triple system of control over the actions and decisions of the investigator (departmental procedural control, prosecutorial and judicial oversight control).
1978-1986 years — further extension of jurisdiction Interior Ministry investigators assigned to their jurisdiction criminal cases involving offenses.
1987-1988 years — conducting experiments to isolate an independent investigation into the structure of discontinued due to deterioration of service interactions for solving crimes.
Today the Ministry of Internal Affairs investigative unit — the largest structure of the preliminary investigation, the investigating 93% of the crimes.