Home National Film Awards and the United States is one of the world's most prestigious film awards — "Oscar» (Oscar) is the oldest award in the world in the field of media, but still remains one of the most significant awards in world cinema. It is awarded annually by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts (Academy Award) at the ceremony, which is traditionally held in late February in the theater «Kodak» in Los Angeles (USA).
The peculiarity of this award in the fact that unlike most film festivals, "Oscars" are awarded on the results of the public voting members of Academy Awards, and not the choice of the jury. Candidates for the award are nominated by colleagues, the film industry, but the prize winners are determined by secret ballot by members of the Academy Awards, which as of 2007 there were about 6,000 people, divided into 16 guilds. And each guild (by the way, the largest of which is the actor's) votes on its category (actors choose the best actress and actor, script writers — a better writer, etc.). But for some nominations are special voting group is an Academy, and all together they vote for only one category — "Best Picture." The winners' names are kept secret until the ceremony "Oscars».
Sign in cinema «Kodak Theatre» (Photo: ru.wikipedia.org) The history of the award is from 1929, although the name "Oscar" is it officially in 1939, and originally known as the «Academy Awards» and was designed head of the U.S. film studio MGM Luis B.Mayerom. He's still two years earlier, was one of the founders of American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, AMPAS) along with other moviemakers and heads of Hollywood studios.
The first film award ceremony of the Academy Awards was held May 16 in 1929 in Los Angeles at the "Roosevelt". Since then, the rules of presentation, voting, and even a list of nominations is constantly changing. Today the ceremony is broadcast in dozens of countries around the world in the air, and before 1953 it is airing on the radio.
Perhaps the only thing that has not changed since the early days of the "Oscar" — gold-plated statuette, which is the main prize for the winners. It is produced since 1929 and is a knight with a sword on a reel of film. Five holes on the basis of the coil — that's five divisions Academy Awards: producers, writers, directors, actors and technology. Height figurines — 34 cm, weight — 3.85 kg, it is made of gold-plated alloy britain, it is located on a pedestal of black marble. The idea belongs to the statue of MGM executive director Cedric Gibbons, its embodiment — the sculptor George Stanley. But the author of the name — "Oscar" — It is not yet known.
Originally Prize awarded in 12 categories, is now the "Oscar" is awarded on the 24 major categories: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Male and female roles, best male and female supporting actor, best original script, Best Screenplay, Adaptation, Best Music, Best Song, Best Editing, Best Visual Effects, Best Art Direction-producer, Best Cinematography, Best Sound, Best Costume Design, Best sound editing, Best Makeup, Best Foreign Language Film, The best feature and documentary short films, best animated feature and short film, best documentary feature. Only 7 nominations have remained unchanged since 1929, and documentary films nominated for "Oscar" only since 2001. In addition to the core, "Oscars" and also awarded a special nominations.
Gold-plated statuette "Oscar" Soviet and Russian films were nominated for "Oscar" many times, but have received this award, only six of our paintings — a documentary film L.Varlamova and I. Kopalin "The defeat of the fascist German troops near Moscow" (1942), the motion picture «War and Peace" (1968), the pattern «Dersu Uzala" (a co-production of the USSR and Japan, 1975), a film «Moscow does not believe in tears" (1980), a drama «Burnt by the Sun" (1994) and the animated film A.Petrov "The Old Man and the Sea" (2000).
Unfortunately, in recent years, Russian movies, Nominated for "Oscar" are defeated even before the stage of the competition for the nomination. How to find the leading local filmmakers, the problem is not the lack of decent Russian films, and the difference in the criteria for the selection of films for the nominees in some of the factors that influence the award of the prize, which have nothing to do with art, for example, political.
In general, in recent years, and the choice of policy premiums are increasingly being criticized all over the world. In particular, it is noted that the opinion of the voting members of the Academy Awards is not always impartial. Since the beginning of the season they vote under pressure from film companies in the form of an active campaign films applicants. Also, experts say the declining level of requirements for nominees, and the fact that the financial performance of movie rentals influence the voting members of the Academy Awards. Therefore, the picture that should be marked by attention thanks to artistic merit, are undeservedly forgotten.
But despite the criticism, the "Oscar" and today is one of the world's most prestigious film awards, and she Ceremony "Oscars" attracted to TV screens more viewers around the world.