Sociology (from Lat. socius — public, etc. -Greek. logos — teaching) — the science that studies the society, considering him as a single integrated system, and how the individual public institutions, revealing attitudes and patterns.
The term "sociology" was introduced in the first half 19th century French philosopher (Auguste Conte, 1798 — 1857). Comte formulated the definition of sociology as a science that studies the social patterns. The names of the world-famous sociologists include (Max Weber), (Emile Durkheim), (Karl Marx).
In the 20th century, sociology expanded and split off from it a few specialized areas — sociology of law, sociology of the family and others. In the late 20th century, widespread and significant popularity polls received. One of the main objectives of public opinion polls is the rapid acquisition of information about the views of the people, their estimates of social phenomena, and the various phenomena and states of social, group and individual consciousness.
Historical documents show that November 14 in 1901 in Paris was opened Russian Higher School of Social Sciences, which some experts believe the first in the history of world science experiences Sociology Department.
lectures in Russian higher education leading sociologists read and Russian policy: Kovalevsky, N. Karev, E. De Robertis, Miliukov and others.
Since 1994, the sociologist's Day is celebrated regularly in departments of sociology leading Russian universities, including those in St. Petersburg University, are: the Russian academic sociology.