Saint Dominic (Saint Dominic, Spanish. Domingo), founder of the Order of Preachers, or the Dominican Order (Dominicans or Order of Preachers), was born in 1170 to a wealthy Spanish family Gusmans in Kaleruege (Caleruega). To fourteen years, he studied under the guidance of his uncle, a priest, then the school for 10 years studying the liberal arts and theology, and in 1184 entered the University of Palencia. In his youth, Dominic became famous for his kindness and compassion. It is known that he sold his precious books and even clothing to help those in need, and twice tried to sell themselves into slavery to free captured compatriots.
In 1196 Dominic was a member of the Chapter of Canons Regular in Osma, one of whose tasks was the reform of the established rules for the clergy. Dominic, known for his modesty, is a perfect example for other participants.
In 1203, Bishop Diego de Azevedo was sent Castilian King Alfonso IX in Denmark on a diplomatic mission, which had the goal to achieve the consent of a marriage with a Danish princess Spanish prince. Dominic was included in this expedition. Driving through the South of France, the bishop and his companions were amazed at the scale of the spread of the Albigensian heresy territory.
After returning from northern Europe Bishop de Azevedo and Dominique were in the South of France, decided to devote himself to preaching the Gospel and the fight against heresy in the region. In 1206, they founded a community of women Pruyle, consisting of the daughters of the nobility and Catholic women converts from heresy. The bishop was soon recalled by the Pope, but Dominic stayed in France and continued his activities. In the years 1209-1213, Dominique again preaching in Languedoc during the Albigensian Crusade.
Holy DominikV 1214 appears the first community in Toulouse, six like-minded people from the community were then the kernel of the Order of Preachers.
In 1215, Dominique arrives in Rome, and appeals to the Pope Innocent III to approve the Order, however, approved the Charter of the Order was only in 1216 following Pope Honorius III. The Order was given the name — the Order of Preachers, later it became increasingly be called the Order of the Dominicans after the founder. Since this was the first organization of a religious order in the preparation of its Statutes were taken rules written St. Augustine. The main objectives of the Order have been preaching the gospel and religious truths, as well as clever use of intellectual power of the priesthood to the needs of the people.
Subsequent years Dominic has traveled, spreading his order in Italy, Spain and France.
He died at noon on August 6 in 1221 after a long and serious illness in the Dominican convent of Saint Nicholas in Bologna (St. Nicholas at Bologna), where the rest of his power. In 1234, he was canonized by Pope Gregory IX.
The tradition of the Catholic Church relates to the name of St. Dominic Rosary appearance — a widespread Catholic prayer beads. According to legend, the rosary was given to Saint Dominic in 1214 during the phenomenon of the Virgin Mary.